GFS-3000

The portable GFS-3000 is a high precision system for the assessment of plant

photosynthesis (CO2-uptake) or respiration (CO2-release) and transpiration – also in

combination with optical measurements.

Gas exchange measurements rely on the basic principle that changes in CO2 and H2O concentrations are determined when air passes through a climate controlled chamber containing a plant sample.

The GFS-3000 is suitable for controlled laboratory settings as well as demanding field conditions.

The GFS-3000 perfectly complements with other Walz systems giving access to numerous aspects of photosynthesis research.

The Portable Gas-Exchange and Fluorescence System GFS-3000 enables wide range climate control. All environmental parameters relevant for plant photosynthesis (CO2, H2O, temperature, light, ventilation and flow) can be controlled automatically and over the full physiological range.

Optional fluorescence modules further expand the system’s capability. Experimental protocols for automatic light-curves or automatic CO2-curves can be easily programmed.

Main Components of the Basic System
Package GFS-3000

  Control Unit 3100‐C containing the CO2 and H2O analyzer, as well as all components required for the CO2, H2O and flow control

  Standard Measuring Head 3010‐S featuring high application flexibility containing the ventilation system, temperature and light control

  LED Light Source 3041-L with warm white LED array providing up to 10 cm2 homogenous illumination

  AC Power Supply 3020‐N for laboratory use

  Two LiFePO4 Battery Units 3035‐A for field work and Battery Charger LC‐03

Optional Components and Accessories
of the GFS-3000

  LED‐Array/PAM‐Fluorometer 3056‐FL for illumination of the leaf area and fluorescence measurements

  Fiberoptics PAM‐Fluorometer 3050‐F to analyze fluorescence in sunlight

  Miscellaneous accessories such as cuvettes and adapter plates offering user‐specific application options

  Accessories for product combinations with other Walz systems

Also, the complete equipment will be modified on customer request.

Modified System Package GFS-3000FL

The modified system package GFS‐3000FL contains the LEDArray/ PAM‐Fluorometer 3056‐FL instead of the LED Light Source 3041‐L. All other components remain the same as in the basic system package GFS‐3000. In terms of price, GFS‐3000FL offers an interesting option to combine gas exchange and fluorescence measurements.

The Control-Unit 3100-C contains the CO2 and H2O analyzer, as well as
all components required for the CO2, H2O and flow control.
 

Gas Analyzer

The Control Unit 3100-C of the GFS-3000 contains a high accuracy non-dispersive 4-channel infrared gas analyzer for the determination of CO2 (0-3000 ppm) and H2O (0-75000 ppm) with 20 cm optical path length, 6 ml gold plated cells. The specially developed dualfrequency chopper technology allows simultaneous assessment of differential and absolute signal.

The analyzer is optimized for a very stable and accurate differential signal. The differential zero is indicated, allowing clear information about the stability of the measurement.

Due to the separation of analyzer and measuring head, the measuring head temperature does not influence the analyzer.


Control Unit 3100-C



High capacity LiFePO4 Battery Unit provide longer operation duration


CO2 Control

The integrated CO2 control ranges from 0 to 2000 ppm CO2. The CO2 supply can be filled from cartridges. One cartridge contains 8 g, and provides CO2 (340 ppm, standard flow rate) continuously for more than 48 hours. The actual CO2-reserve is indicated. Alternatively an external CO2-cylinder equipped with pressure reducer (6 bar) can be directly attached to the control unit.

Flow Control

Air flow through the cuvette is exactly adjusted between 300-1400 μmol s-1 by a membrane pump controlled by a high precision electronic mass flow-meter. The mechanical flow indicators directly show flow balance and cuvette tightness.

Humidity Control

The humidity control for drying and humidifying ranges from 0 to nearly 100% r.h. It consists of a drying and humidifying column and an automatic valve.

Power

The Control Unit 3100‐C can be operated using various power solutions such as LiFePO4 Battery Units 3035‐A, car batteries (12‐24 V) or the AC Power Supply 3020‐N. The LiFePo4 battery power system provides advantages like longer operation duration, longevity and trouble‐free shipment. Two LiFePo4 Battery Units 3035‐A can be connected simultaneously to the control unit, resulting in a total operation time of 6 to 9 hours. A compartment at the bottom of the control unit provides room for one battery system.


Control Unit 3100-C directly accepts USB-memory sticks



Internal panel-PC running GFS-Win



Silica gel, humidifier granules and soda lime for H2O and CO2 control



Flow Chart of the GFS-3000

The design of the 3010-S offers maximum flexibility. The measuring area can

be adapted with special plates; the cuvette can be modified for conifers, lichens,

Arabidopsis plants or specific requirements.
 

General Features

The Standard Measuring Head 3010-S features a clamp-on cuvette with a large measuring area of up to 10 cm2 and a convenient closing mechanism. The symmetrical construction allows separate assessment of upper and lower leaf surface.

3010-S provides wide temperature-, light- and ventilation-control as well as a trigger button for the manual start of a user program.

Flexibility

The configuration of 3010-S can be changed easily requiring only a few accessories. The measuring area can easily be modified with area adapter plates. Additional flexibility is provided by various cuvettes e.g. for conifers or lichens/ mosses or a small chamber for the analysis of the complete above‐ground part of Arabidopsis plants.

The circuitry for the temperature and light control, the ventilation system and the sensor electronics are located in a detachable electronics box and can be used for self‐built measuring chambers.


Standard Measuring Head 3010-S


Temperature

The 3010-S has four temperature sensors: One Pt100 sensor per each cuvette half, a thermocouple for leaf temperature and a Pt100 for the external temperature.
The temperature control can be switched between three modes: Constant cuvette temperature, constant leaf temperature, or temperature variation parallel to ambient temperature regime with an adjustable offset. The last mode is especially well suited to assess plant responses in future temperature regimes.

Due to the high performance elements of temperature control, the cuvette temperature can be decreased by up to 10 K. Maximum temperature reached is 50 °C.


Light

The 3010-S has three sensors for photosynthetic active radiation (PAR): One cosine corrected Mini Quantum Sensor MQS-B/GFS, located on top of the measuring head, and two additional sensors located inside each cuvette half. Light can be provided with the LED Light Source 3041-L to the upper or lower side of the cuvette. The light control can be either set to a constant PAR level from 0 up to ca. 3000 μmol m-2 s-1 or to track the ambient PAR.

Light control from 0 up to ca. 2500 µmol m-2 s-1 and additional PAM measurement-options are supplied by the LED-Array/PAM-Fluorometer 3056-FL.



Lichens/Mosses Cuvette 3010-V32 here used to measure gas exchange of a small animal



Standard Measuring Head 3010-S closed and open



Standard Measuring Head 3010-S with Light Source 3041-L and darkening plate connected



LED Light Source 3041-L (left) and LED-Array/PAM-Fluorometer 3056-FL (right)



Lichens/Mosses Cuvette 3010-V40



Conifer Cuvette 3010-V80



Arabidopsis Chamber 3020-A



Cuvette-modification on customer request



Standard Measuring Head 3010-S mounted on a tripod



Leaf area adapters


 

The long lasting experience in PAM fluorometry of Heinz Walz GmbH
is embedded in the PAM fluorometers 3056-FL and 3050-F.

 

The PAM fluorometry with the saturation pulse method provides detailed information on the light-energy usage of photosystem II and, thus, adds important information on primary photosynthetic reactions to the gas exchange data.

The LED-Array/ PAM-Fluorometer 3056-FL collects the fluorescence information with 6 detectors on up to 8 cm2sample area.

Its LED array provides actinic red and blue light as well as the saturating light pulses. Also, it features far-red LEDs to determine the Fo’ fluorescence. It connects with a simple snap-on mount to the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S, allowing optical control when positioning the leaf in the cuvette.


LED-Array/PAM-Fluorometer 3056-FL connected to the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S



LED-Array/PAM-Fluorometer 3056-FL



LED-Array/PAM-Fluorometer 3056-FL illuminating 8 cm2 leaf area


Accessory: Dark Leaf Clips 3010-DLC

For the determination of the maximum fluorescence signal (Fm), the leaf needs to be dark acclimated. The additional light-weight Dark Leaf Clips 3010-DLC, with positioning aid and sliding shutters, made from sun reflecting material, fit to the measuring area of the 3010-S


Dark Leaf Clips 3010-DLC


System Package GFS‐3000FL

The system package GFS-3000FL contains the same components as the system package GFS-3000, except that it includes the LED-Array/PAM-Fluorometer 3056-FL instead of the LED Light Source 3041-L.


System Package GFS-3000FL (includes LED-Array/PAM-Fluorometer 3056-FL)

The long lasting experience in PAM fluorometry of Heinz Walz GmbH
is embedded in the PAM fluorometers 3056-FL and 3050-F.

To analyze fluorescence in ambient light, the Fiberoptics PAM-Fluorometer 3050-F can be attached to the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S. It employs a blue LED for measuring light and the saturating light pulses, and also features far-red illumination for Fo’ determination.

Fiberoptics PAM-Fluorometer 3050-F can be directly operated with the GFS-3000 in the field.


Fiberoptics PAM-Fluorometer 3050-F connected to the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S



Fiberoptics PAM-Fluorometer 3050-F connected to the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S


 

Accessory: Dark Leaf Clips 3010-DLC

For the determination of the maximum fluorescence signal (Fm), the leaf needs to be dark acclimated. The additional light-weight Dark Leaf Clips 3010-DLC, with positioning aid and sliding shutters, made from sun reflecting material, fit to the measuring area of the 3010-S.


Dark Leaf Clips 3010-DLC




 

GFS-3000 & IMAGING-PAM

System Combination
 

Images of fluorescence parameters and PAR absorptivity reveal heterogeneities in the leaf function, which cannot be distinguished by gas exchange measurements.

In return, most physiological heterogeneities, or differences in genotypes, only become clearly visible in fluorescence images under changing CO2, O2 or temperature conditions, or under extreme conditions, all of which can be easily applied with a gas exchange system.


IMAGING-PAM MINI-Head connected with snap-on mount (Adapter IMAG-MIN/GFS)
to the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S



IMAGING-PAM MINI-Head connected to the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S modified with the Arabidopsis Chamber 3010-A


The IMAGING-PAM M-Series MINI version can be equipped with the Adapter IMAG-MIN/GFS, so that it connects to the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S with a simple but firm snap-on mount. This connection even enables imaging of objects located in various specialized cuvettes.


IMAGING-PAM MAXI-Head combined with Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1



IMAGING-PAM MAXI-Head LED-Array


On the larger scale, imaging can be carried out using an IMAGING-PAM M-Series MAXI version in combination with the large-spaced Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1. This facilitates climate controlled imaging over an area of 10 x 13 cm2 supplemented by gas exchange analysis.

The software of both systems (GFS-Win and ImagingWin) operate in synchrony on one laptop exchanging data between each other. This allows automatic imaging during light curves or CO2-curves controlled by GFS-Win.


Software GFS-Win and ImagingWin running in synchrony exchanging data. Image names are stored in the gas exchange file.



Software GFS-Win and ImagingWin running in synchrony exchanging data between each other. Image names are stored in the gas exchange file.



 

GFS-3000 & DUAL-PAM-100

System Combination
 

The most sophisticated combination of Walz instruments is the GFS-3000, together with the P700 & Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measuring System DUAL-PAM-100, using the specially designed DUAL-PAM Gas-Exchange Cuvette 3010-DUAL.

This novel setup is the first commercially available system allowing simultaneous analysis of PS I and PS II photochemistry simultaneously with CO2 gas exchange.


GFS-3000 with DUAL-PAM Gas-Exchange Cuvette 3010-DUAL and DUAL-PAM-100



GFS-3000 with DUAL-PAM Gas-Exchange Cuvette 3010-DUAL and DUAL-PAM-100


The cuvette 3010-DUAL enables control of temperature and gas composition. Hence, the wide range of information provided by the DUAL-PAM-100 can be obtained under climate controlled conditions concurrent with gas exchange data.

The small area of the cuvette 3010-DUAL (1.3 cm2), makes it very suitable for experiments on single Arabidopsisleaves. Also the P515/535 Emitter and Detector, which enable the DUAL-PAM-100 to measure the electro-chromic carotenoid shift and “light scattering”, is compatible with the cuvette 3010-DUAL.


DUAL-PAM Gas-Exchange Cuvette 3010-DUAL



DUAL-PAM Gas-Exchange Cuvette 3010-DUAL



DUAL-PAM Gas-Exchange Cuvette 3010-DUAL



Leaf temperature sensor in the DUAL-PAM Gas-Exchange Cuvette 3010-DUAL



Screen-shot of the DualPAM software showing the effect of increasing CO2 on the P700 (blue trace) and chlorophyll fluorescence signal (red trace); temperature: 30°C, photosynthetically active radiation: 660 μmol m-2 s-1


 

GFS-3000 & Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1

System Combination
 

The Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1 can be operated with the GFS-3000, replacing the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S. The top of the chamber can be
designed according to customer request.

The gas-exchange chamber provides a big range in temperature control: More than 10 K below ambient temperature and up to 50°C. The top of the chamber can be designed according to customer request.


Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1


The area of the Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1 is designed to match the imaging area of the IMAGING-PAM M-Series Maxi version.

Please consider using 3010-GWK1 in combination
with the GFS-3000, that the maximum flow of the
GFS-3000 is 1.9 l/min. Leaf samples producing too
much humidity can limit the systems capabilities.


Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1, top view showing sample area and sensors


The LED-Panel RGBW-L084 complements the Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1. Individually adjustable colors red, green, blue and white with high power LEDs illuminate together with a maximum output of 2000 μmol
m-2 s-1 PAR or better.


Changing light conditions with LED-Panel RGBW-L084


 

The GFS-3000 can be controlled via the integrated panel-PC or an USB connected
external-PC, featuring the same user-friendly GFS-Win software.

The integrated panel-PC features a large color display (10 cm x 13 cm) with touch screen and background illumination, which is clearly readable in direct sunlight.

Beginners are able to operate the GFS-Win software with minimal training. The well thought-out software structure allows comfortable adjustment of measuring conditions as well as demonstrative data display.


Color screen with touch panel, well readable in sunlight



Settings window for easy determination of measuring conditions



Dialog box to set H2O value



Chart window displaying results measured by GFS-3000 equipped with the LED-Array/PAM Fluorometer 3056-FL


Users are guided with illustrated tutorials in more sophisticated procedures e.g. calibrations. The control of the instrument from an external PC allows descriptive demonstrations of on-time experiments in classes or lectures.

Settings window: serves to enter measuring conditions.
Chart window: each magnitude can be displayed, the mouse curser indicates the given measured value.
Values window: shows all present values

Report window: displays the stored values and recalculates data with a new leaf area or weight.
Program window: easy programming of user-defined protocols, e.g. CO2-curves or light-curves.
Quickview column: always visible for user defined display of present values.
 

Free software updates will keep your instrument always up-to date on latest developments.

 

Interface Box

Interface Box establishing a connection between the socket COMP and the USB-port of a PC. Suitable for direct operation of the Standard Measuring Heads 3010-S, the Dual-PAM Gas-Exchange Cuvette 3010-DUAL, the Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1 or the Control Units 3000-C or 3100-C by an external PC


 

Accessories for the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S

Leaf Area Adapters

3010-4.5x2.22 Leaf Area Adapter 10 cm2 (4.5 x 2.22 cm)
3010-0.5x2.5 Leaf Area Adapter 1.25 cm2 (0.5 x 2.5 cm)
3010-1x4 Leaf Area Adapter 4 cm2 (1 x 4 cm)
3010-2.19x1.14 Leaf Area Adapter 2.5 cm2 (2.19 x 1.14 cm)
3010-2.19x1.14C Leaf Area Adapter 2.5 cm2 located at the corner (2.19 x 1.14 cm)
3010-2.58x1.93 Leaf Area Adapter 5 cm2 (2.58 x 1.93 cm)
3010-2x4 Leaf Area Adapter 8 cm2 (2 x 4 cm)
3010-R3 round Leaf Area Adapter 3 cm2 (Ø 1,95 cm)


 

Various Cuvettes

Lichens/Mosses Cuvette 3010-V32
Lichens/Mosses Cuvette 3010-V40
Conifers Cuvette 3010-V80
Arabidopsis Chamber 3010-A


 

Compact Tripod ST-1010

Stable tripod for mounting the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S


 

Accessories for Fluorescence Components

Dark Leaf Clips 3010-DLC

For the determination of the maximum fluorescence signal (Fm), the leaf needs to be dark acclimated. The light-weight dark leaf clips, with positioning aid and sliding shutters, made from sun reflecting material, fit to the measuring area of the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S.


 

Oxygen Sensor 3080-O2

In chlorophyll-fluorescence research, experiments are sometimes performed at decreased oxygen concentrations to avoid photorespiration. The Oxygen Sensor 3080-O2 can be used as stand-alone system or it can be directly connected to the Central Unit for the recording of the actual oxygen concentration. It comprises a maintenance free lead-oxygen battery and is insensitive to CO2. The resolution at the GFS-3000 is 0.03% O2.


 

Leaf Area Adapter 3010-F-2010

Adapter for attachment of the Special Fiberoptics 2010-F (see PAM-2500) to the GFS-3000. Leaf area: 8 cm2



 

Miniature Fiberoptics MINI-PAM

3010-F-MINI

Fiberoptics for connection of the MINI-PAM to the GFS-3000. Active diameter 1.5 mm, length 1.5 m, including adapter for the attachment to the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S.


 

Accessories for System Combinations

Adapter IMAG-MIN/GFS

Adapter plate necessary to couple the IMAGING-PAM M-Series MINI version with the Standard Measuring Head 3010-S.


 

Adapter IMAG‐MAX/GWK1

Adapter to couple the IMAGING-PAM M-Series MAXI version with the Gas-Exchange Chamber 3010-GWK1.


 

DUAL‐PAM Gas-Exchange Cuvette

3010-DUAL

Gas exchange cuvette designed for simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and PSI /PS II photochemistry


 

Accessories concerning power

LiFePO4 Battery 3035-A

Power supply for the GFS-3000 in the field, included in the system package GFS-3000 and GFS-3000FL. Operating time: 3 - 4.5 hours. Power: 12.8 V / 15 Ah (2x 7.5 Ah).
 

Battery Charger LC-03

For simultaneous recharging of 2 LiFePO4 Batteries 3035-A, included in the system package GFS-3000 and GFS-3000FL
 

DC-DC Converter 3020-DC (for Control

Unit 3000-C)

For supplying power to the Control Unit model 3000-C from an external DC (12-24V, e.g. car battery), which has no special connectors. Input voltage 9-32 V, output current max. 6 A with under voltage and over temperature protection.
 

Battery Cable 3100-C/BC (for Control

Unit 3100-C)

For supplying voltage to the Control Unit model 3100-C from an external DC (12-24V, e.g. car battery), which has no special connectors

 

Additional accessoires

Outdoor-Set 3000-C/OS

Consisting of sun protection shield for control unit, buffer vessel 10 l, with holding net, fiber glass antenna 2.5 m and tubing.
 

Control Unit 3000-C with Insert for Drier

If the system shall be operated in extremely humid environments, an insert for silica gel can be built into the housing of the Control Unit 3000-C.