Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100

The universal, high-quality instrument for analyzing wetting and coating processes

Video | Universal analysis of wettability and adhesion

Our Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100 is our high-quality system solution for almost all tasks in the analysis of wetting and adhesion on solid surfaces. From the basic unit for precise measurement of the contact angle to the fully automatic expert instrument for serial measurement of surface free energy (SFE) we have the suitable DSA100 for your special requirements. We exactly match the individual, flexible and reliable components to your surfaces and processes.

Flexible solutions for your tasks

We have developed all components of the DSA100 to provide solution-oriented support in the investigation and optimization of wetting and adhesion behavior. With up to three axes for sample positioning, the sample is moved quickly and reproducibly to the measuring positions. Measurement of the contact angle with up to 8 liquids ensures maximum accuracy when determining the SFE. Our pressurized double-dosing unit allows measuring the SFE extremely fast and reliable, using our novel, scientifically validated dosing technique, the Liquid Needle.

Precisely controlled temperature and humidity chambers help to provide a realistic modeling of the process conditions. Our special sample tables optimize the investigation of wafers and ultrahydrophobic surfaces. High-tech solutions for optical components enable a time-saving, automatic image setup, and measurement of extremely fast wetting processes. They also allow measurements to be made on microscopically small samples.

Quality down to the last detail

The particularly uniform LED illumination and the quality lens ensure high precision when displaying the drop for accurately measuring the contact angle or surface tension. Thanks to the large zoom range, even small drops appear with optimum width in the video image and can therefore be investigated reliably. We have also provided protection for sensitive components and have minimized the troublesome effect of vibration. The high-resolution camera, the lens and the syringes and storage vessels for test liquids are mounted in a robust, enclosed housing.

It is often necessary to adjust the viewing angle before measuring the contact angle. This is achieved particularly quickly and easily with our DSA100. The position of the drop in the image remains unchanged when the viewing angle is adjusted. As a result, the otherwise usual tracking of the sample height is no longer necessary. This innovative optical arrangement also creates space for large samples.

Comprehensive analysis of solids and liquids

Our DSA100 measures the surface tension of liquids using the Pendant Drop method. The results can be used to analyze the relationship between the wetting of the solid and the liquid properties. The results help to provide a scientific picture of the interface contact, which can be used, for example, to optimize the adhesion and long-term stability of coatings. Other solutions for measuring the liquid-liquid interfacial tension, for measurements at high pressures and for surface rheology make the DSA100 a universal instrument for interface research.

Tasks and applications

  • Characterization of surface pre-treatment processes
  • Investigation of the adhesion and stability of bonding and coating processes
  • Investigation of coating substances in accordance with DIN 55660
  • Checking the wettability of plastic, glass, ceramic, wood or metal
  • Quality control for wafers and microelectronics
  • Checking surface cleanliness
  • Elasticity of liquid films
  • Wetting of microscopically small surfaces

Measuring methods and options

  • Contact angle between a liquid and a solid
  • Surface free energy from contact angles of several test liquids using all common models
  • Static contact angleadvancing angle and receding angle
  • Roll-off angle on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces
  • Measurement of surface tension and liquid-liquid interfacial tension using the Pendant Drop method
  • Temperature-controlled measurements from -30 to 400°C
  • Measurements at controlled humidity
  • Surface rheological measurements (modulus of elasticity E'; modulus of viscosity E'')
  • Wetting measurements on microscopically small surfaces

Accessories (selection)

This list includes a selection of components which are not included in one of the DSA100 versions listed on the right.

  • Temperature controlled chamber for large samples from -10 to 120°C
  • Temperature controlled chamber for rapid temperature changes from -30 to 160°C
  • Temperature controlled chamber for high temperatures up to 400°C
  • High-temperature dosing unit up to 400°C
  • Module for controlling humidity
  • Tilting tables
  • Large instrument frame for large samples
  • Special sample holders, for example for cylindrical samples, films, contact lenses or powders
  • Dosing accessory for Captive Bubble measurements or measurement of the liquid-liquid interfacial tension
  • Dosing units for drops of a few picoliters
  • Module for characterizing the surface rheological properties of liquids

ADVANCE – our intuitive software solution for your measurement tasks

The simple operation of the instrument goes hand-in-hand with the clear user guidance of our ADVANCE software. The relevant functions for each particular step are arranged in tiles which display all elements necessary in the context. By avoiding the use of menus and pop-ups, ADVANCE saves any unnecessary clicks and time-consuming searches for hidden elements. Particularly comfortable is the programming of automatic sequences that integrate the software-controlled components of the DSA100 in complete sample analyses with maximum flexibility. Using these automation programs provides high reproducibility and reduces the user’s influence on the results to a minimum.

Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100E

The high-class universal instrument for surface analysis for quality assurance and research

The expert configuration of our Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100 is designed for the fully automatic measurement of the contact angle and the surface free energy of solid samples and the surface tension of liquids. The system carries out automatic, fully standardized and complete analyses of the sample. It enables wetting and coating processes to be investigated comprehensively and scientifically, and the adhesion and long-term stability of coatings to be calculated.

Top-of-the-range equipment for dosing and sample positioning

Our high-quality automatic dosing unit enables the contact angle with four liquids to be measured in quick succession. As an option, the dosing unit can be expanded to up to eight liquids in order to achieve maximum accuracy when determining the surface free energy. The software-controlled axes ensure maximum precision by moving the sample accurately to all pre-defined measuring positions, where dosing and measurement are then carried out fully automatically.

Fully automatic analysis based on flexible measurement templates

The measurement is carried out based on programmable measuring sequences which we have already prepared for the main surface analysis tasks. It is also possible to measure the position-dependent contact angle (mapping) to check the homogeneity of the sample or to compare differently coated regions.

Our computer-controlled components, such as optical zoom and focus adjustment, ensure maximum possible convenience. These enable the drop to be displayed with different drop widths for different test liquids, thus enabling the contact angle to be measured with the greatest possible accuracy at all times.

Comprehensive coating analysis by incorporating surface tension

The DSA100E enables the surface tension of a liquid to be measured without changing over the instrument. This can be carried out manually or even incorporated into an automatic measuring sequence. Combining the liquid data with those of the solid enables a comprehensive characterization of the component compatibility. For example, it is possible to determine the intensity of the adhesion and the long-term stability of a coating.

Features

  • Software-controlled x- and y-axis and software-controlled lift table (z-axis)
  • Software-controlled quadruple dosing unit, expandable for up to eight liquids
  • Lens with software-controlled zoom and focus adjustment
  • Camera with 1200 × 800 px at 200 fps to 90 × 60 px at 2000 fps resolution
  • Very bright, homgenous LED illumination
  • Viewing angle adjustment with stable image height
  • Software for measuring contact angle, surface free energy of solids and surface tension of liquids

Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100S

The system solution for measuring surface free energy

The standard version of our Drop Shape Analyzer is a special version of our DSA100 system solution for measuring the contact angle and the surface free energy of a solid. It provides all the technical advantages of the DSA100 system with regard to optics and sample size. We have put together the additional, flexible components of the DSA100S especially for quality assurance and the scientific investigation of wetting and coating processes.

Manual axes for the three spatial directions enable the required measuring position to be adjusted accurately and without contact, even for larger samples. Our liquid dosing unit is software-controlled and enables the drop volume and the dosing feed to be precisely adjusted. This enables the measuring conditions for the contact angle to be accurately reproduced. Measuring the advancing and receding angle averages out local inhomogeneities and provides reliable data for assessing the roughness of the solid.

After dosing, the software can start the measurement automatically and record raw data immediately. A precise value for the surface free energy can be quickly determined from contact angle data of several test liquids thanks to the rapid exchange of dosing syringes and the programmable, semi-automatic measuring sequences.

The DSA100S and the software can be upgraded to any other system configuration at any time. This enables the degree of automation and the standardization of the measuring sequence to be increased as required. You also have access to the comprehensive range of accessories for the DSA100 for adapting the measuring conditions to specific processes.

Features

  • Manual x- and y-axis and manual lift table (z-axis)
  • Software-controlled single-dosing unit
  • Zoom lens (7-times)
  • Camera with 1200 × 800 px at 200 fps to 90 × 60 px at 2000 fps resolution
  • Very bright, homgenous LED illumination
  • Viewing angle adjustment with stable image height
  • Software for measuring contact angle and surface free energy of solids

Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100B

The system solution for contact angle measurement

The basic configuration of our Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100 combines precision manual measurement of the contact angle with the technical advantages and robustness of the DSA100 system solution. The instrument enables reliable investigations of wetting to be carried out in quality assurance and research for pre-treatment and coating processes.

The sample height is adjusted exactly thanks to the fine drive on our manual lift table. The particularly delicate depositing or retrieval of the dispensed drop from the needle ensures gentle contact between sample and liquid. This prevents inaccurate measurement of the contact angle due to unintentional pre-wetting. Drops of a reproducible size for exactly reproducible conditions are generated by our manual dosing unit with the help of a micrometer screw.

The special features of the optical assembly include a particularly large sample chamber with rapid adjustment of the viewing angle as well as a high-resolution camera. Both options are also part of the basic version of the DSA100B.

Upgrades to all other system configurations are possible for the instrument and the software. You can therefore increase the degree of automation and standardization of the measuring sequence at any time. The comprehensive range of accessories for the DSA100 for adapting the measuring conditions to specific processes is also available.

Features

  • Manual lift table (z-axis)
  • Manual single-dosing unit
  • Zoom lens (7-times)
  • Camera with 1200 × 800 px at 200 fps to 90 × 60 px at 2000 fps resolution
  • Very bright, homgenous LED illumination
  • Viewing angle adjustment with stable image height
  • Software for measuring contact angle

Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100L

Automated wetting analysis of large samples

With the special version DSA100L of our Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100, the instrument is fitted in a particularly wide frame and equipped with a large, rotating sample table plus an extra-long movement axis. Thanks to an adapted arrangement of the optics which is above the sample, almost the whole frame width is available for samples with an area of up to 500 x 500 mm.

Due to full software control of the axis, the sample table, and the single-dosing unit of the DSA100L, drops can be deposited and analyzed fully automatically on the whole surface of the sample. Mapping measurements with accurate dosing at virtually any number of pre-defined positions are also possible. This enables position-dependent wetting differences to be determined fully automatically.

Numerous upgrades are available for the DSA100L. For example, the measuring process can be standardized down to the smallest detail with the help of software-controlled zoom and focus settings and with a motorized lift table. In addition, our Liquid Needle dosing unit enables surface free energy determination with two liquids in less than a second at each measuring position.

Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100W

Fully automatic quality testing of wafer surfaces

We have specially geared the DSA100W instrument configuration of our universal Drop Shape Analyzer towards the automatic, standardized quality control of wafer surfaces. Our Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100W precisely determines the homogeneity of the cleaning of a wafer surface based on the contact angle. It also enables coatings to be characterized, for example by differences in wetting of exposed and unexposed photo varnish.

The heart of the instrument is a software-controlled, circular sample table which is mounted on a likewise software-controlled, horizontal axis. With this arrangement, every position on the wafer can be accessed quickly, automatically and accurately for measuring the contact angle. The dosing unit produces drops with precisely adjusted volume, which guarantees exactly reproducible measuring conditions. The gentle depositing of the drop and our dynamically controlled dosing system, which dispenses the drop directly onto the sample, prevents measurement deviations which can occur due to unintentional pre-wetting.

The software controls the measurement fully automatically based on standardized measuring procedures. In doing so, positions, which have been defined and stored in advance, are approached and measured one after the other. This achieves a rapid sequence of measurements and a correspondingly high sample throughput as well as a high degree of standardization.

Numerous upgrades are possible for our DSA100W, for example to a lens with software-controlled zoom and focus adjustment for improved measuring convenience. We also provide a semi-automatic lift table and a multi-dosing unit for determining the surface free energy with several test liquids.

Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100M

The precision contact angle measuring instrument for microscopically small samples

We have specially developed the micro configuration of our high-class DSA100 system solution for measuring wetting on very small samples. The instrument enables drops in the picoliter range to be accurately dosed and their shape analyzed in order to measure the contact angle precisely. Our DSA100M helps you to optimize wetting and coating processes on very small surfaces such as hair or on microchip contacts.

Our special dosing units for 20 or 60 picoliter minimum volume dispense microscopically small drops of test liquid onto the required measuring point on the sample. Dosing, for example on a hair, is carried out with pinpoint accuracy with the help of a high-quality observation lens. Working with two test liquids also enables the surface free energy of this tiny surface to be calculated precisely. The surface free energy provides important information, for example for the adhesion of a fiber coating.

Even ultra-small, quickly evaporating drops can be precisely analyzed with the help of our high-speed camera. Thanks to the high-quality microscopic lens and particularly powerful illumination, the DSA100M has an outstandingly high image quality, which enables excellent measuring results to be achieved in the micro range.

Questions and applications

  • Investigation of artificial and natural fibers for composite materials
  • Wettability of contact points for semiconductors
  • Optimization and development of hair care products
  • Wettability of biochips
  • Micromechanical components
  • Microfluidics

Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100HP

Wetting and surface tension under extreme pressures and temperatures

Our DSA100HP is our high-quality solution for the precise measurement of contact angle and surface tension and interfacial tension under high pressures and temperatures, primarily for tertiary oil recovery. The DSA100HP combines our Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100 for optical drop shape analysis with a high-quality measuring cell for high-pressure applications up to 1750bar. It determines the surface tension, and analyzes the wetting of oil-bearing rock by surfactant solutions under the extreme pressure and temperature conditions found in reservoirs. The results help in the extraction of oil from layers of rock in the most effective manner using tertiary oil recovery (EOR) methods such as steam or surfactant flooding, and thereby increase the yield. The instrument equally reliably measures the wettability by gases which liquidize under pressure, for example for optimizing extraction processes with carbon dioxide.

Investigations under storage conditions for crude oil

The accurate and easy-to-use dosing units of our high-quality DSA100HP measuring system dispense drops onto solid samples in order to measure the wetting at high pressures and temperatures based on the contact angle. The instrument also enables measurements to be carried out on solids in a surrounding oil phase. The result shows how well the oil can be extracted from the rock by wetting the rock with an aqueous phase.

The precise measurement of surface tension under storage conditions using the DSA100HP is very informative in the characterization of a surfactant solution which is used for flooding a crude oil reservoir. This should be as low as possible to ensure that the rock is well wetted. The interfacial tension between oil and flooding solution, which can likewise be measured with high precision, should also be as low as possible to enable the oil to be mobilized by the aqueous phase. The measurement results help to optimize oil-water emulsions in order to realize the full potential of a reservoir.

Wettability by liquefied gases during extraction

Thanks to an external gas connection, our DSA100HP is likewise outstandingly suitable for measuring wetting by supercritical carbon dioxide. Wetting of the solid plays a major role in extraction processes which use this pressure-liquefied gas. The extraction process, for example the decaffeination of coffee, can be optimized with the help of wetting measurements carried out with the DSA100HP.

The optimal configuration for your requirements

Measuring instruments up to 40 bar and up to 690 bar, in each case at temperatures up to 200 °C, cover the low to medium pressure range. The new, heatable Mini Dosing System – MDS, which requires only a low sample volume and is distinguished by particularly easy handling and cleaning, is available for these versions. The measuring range is substantially extended with the third variant up to 1750 bar at up to 250 °C. This will enable you to obtain reliable data even under extreme reservoir conditions.

We would be pleased to develop customized solutions to suit your exact requirements and measurement tasks.

Tasks and applications

  • Surface tension of surfactant solutions and their interfacial tension with oil under storage conditions
  • Wettability of and extraction of oil from oil-bearing rock
  • Pressure extraction by means of liquefied gases, e.g. carbon dioxide
  • Development of surfactants for liquid gases

DSA100 accessories

With the comprehensive range of accessories for our Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA100, you can not only extend the scope of your instrument, but also adapt the measuring conditions exactly to suit your individual samples and requirements.

Sample tables, axes and sample holders

A large selection of sample tables, axes and sample holders makes it easy for you to position your special sample. Also, many solutions are available for the measurement of particular sample shapes and surface properties.
 

 

PS3202 – Manual z-axis (lifting table)

The manual lifting table (z-axis) PS3202 is the easy to be used positioning solution for rapidly adjusting the sample height. The high-ratio precision drive ensures that ample force is transmitted effortlessly and accurately, even for positioning heavy samples (up to 5 kg). The table can be combined as required with manual or software-controlled axes to move the sample in the three spatial directions.

PS3205 – Manual z-axis (lifting table) for heavy loads

As a manual positioning table for adjusting the sample height, the PS3205 is designed for particularly heavy loads. Samples of up to 10 kg are moved effortlessly to the required height by means of the precision high-ratio drive with its comfortable crank. The lift table can be combined outstandingly well with manual or software-controlled horizontal axes. It is also designed for special accessories such as temperature controlled chambers.

PS3250 – Software-controlled z-axis (lifting table)

Controlled with precision by our software, the lifting table PS3250 provides flexible options for automating your measurements. The sample moves to the required dosing height as part of the rapidly created measuring procedure. Drops dispensed by the dosing needle can also be collected automatically for particularly low-dynamic wetting. The PS3250 is ideal for combining with horizontal motorized axes. The table moves loads of up to 10 kg and is therefore also laid out for heavy samples and for environmental chambers.

ST3200 – Standard sample table support

The adapter ST3200 is a sample table support for manual or software-controlled z-axes. It is securely assembled to the axis in a few easy steps and forms an absolutely flat table surface. An engraved grid helps you to position the sample accurately. Flexibly deployable holding clamps prevent the sample from shifting.

PS3210/PS3211/PS3212 – Manual axes for horizontal sample positioning

Horizontal movement of the sample table makes it possible to set up many dosing positions on the sample precisely and without contact. For this purpose, the different-length manual axes PS3210/PS3211/PS3212 can be flexibly mounted for movement in or perpendicular to the camera viewing direction. They can also be used in combination for both directions. The fine drive with smooth-running crank ensures that the sample is positioned accurately with little effort.

  • PS3210: 100 mm travel in or perpendicular to the camera viewing direction
  • PS3211: 170 mm travel in or perpendicular to the camera viewing direction
  • PS3212: 350 mm travel perpendicular to the camera viewing direction

PS3244 – Manual micro positioning table

The sample table PS3244 is designed for the ultra-precise positioning of small samples. Manual fine drives for the x- and y-direction enable the table to be moved to the required measuring position with pinpoint accuracy. Samples with heights up to 2 mm can be securely fixed using the versatile, attachable sample holder.

PS3260/PS3261/PS3262 – Software-controlled axes for horizontal sample positioning

The different-length axes PS3260/PS3261/PS3262 move the sample to the required dosing position under software control and with very high resolution. Two combined axes can access every position on a sample area of up to 170 × 350 mm. Quickly created procedures incorporate the axis control into fully automatic analyses such as the precise determination of surface free energy. Position-dependent measurements of the contact angle (mapping) are also possible, for example for checking the homogeneity of a sample.

  • PS3260: 100 mm travel in or perpendicular to the camera viewing direction
  • PS3261: 170 mm travel in or perpendicular to the camera viewing direction
  • PS3262: 350 mm travel perpendicular to the camera viewing direction

PS3270 – Software-controlled rotation axis

The software-controlled rotation axis PS3270, in combination with a motorized horizontal axis, moves samples precisely to the required position. Rapidly created software procedures incorporate the table movement into fully automated sample analyses such as determining the surface free energy. Position-dependent measurements of the contact angle (mapping) can be carried out just as easily, for example for checking the homogeneity of a surface.

As ideal supplements for the rotation table, the ST3210 vacuum table for soft and bendable samples and/or the ST3271 wafer tabletop for the analysis of wafer surfaces are available.

PA3220 – DSA100 tilting device

The tilting device PA3220 is our special unit for the flexible analysis of inclined surfaces. Measuring the resulting drop deformation and the tilt which leads to the drop running off enables conclusions to be drawn relating to roughness and adhesion. The roll-off angle is informative for ultrahydrophobic samples and is accurately measured with slow tilt movements.

As the whole instrument is tilted, the surface is always in the same position relative to the lens. This makes the video evaluation very easy, and changes in the drop can also be tracked visually. Almost all other measuring methods and options provided by your instrument can be used without changing the setup.

  • Angle of inclination up to 90° with a resolution of 0.1°
  • Tilt speed from 0.1°/s to 4.5°/s
  • Video recording starts automatically when tilting begins

PA3240 – Internal Tilting Table

We have developed the internal tilting table PA3240 (in the photo fitted to a DSA30) for software-controlled wetting analyses on inclined surfaces with high dosing flexibility. With this tilting solution, the dosing unit remains vertical, thus enabling drops to be deposited or dropped onto the already inclined surface in a defined way. This is a common method for measuring the roll-off angle. The system also analyzes drop deformation equally reliabley.

The low weight enables angular resolution, precision and possible tilt speed to be maximized. The internal table PA3240 is also ideal, when little space is available for the frame of an external tilting device.

  • Angle of inclination up to 90° with a resolution of 0.01°
  • Accuracy of 0.3° ± 0.1°
  • Tilt speed from 0.5°/s to 50°/s
  • Video recording starts automatically when tilting begins
  • Optional tilting table support ST13 can be fitted for finely adjusting the dosing position

ST13 – Tilting table support for precise sample positioning

The sample table support ST13 for our tilting tables PA3240 and PA4240 simplifies the positioning of small samples up to 50 × 50 mm. The adjusting screw moves the support plateau to the required dosing position with pinpoint accuracy. Fitting of the support is flexible to enable movement perpendicular to or along the camera viewing direction.

ST3210 – Vacuum table

The vacuum table ST3210 has a permeable tabletop through the pores of which samples are drawn homogeneously on a large area of 150 × 220 mm. The table ensures a flat and easy-to-analyze surface when carrying out measurements on films as well as samples with only low elasticity or softness. It can be mounted flexibly on horizontal movement axes or (with DSA100 and DSA30) on a rotation axis. A vacuum pump, which is required for operating the table, can be obtained from us.

ST3271 – Tabletop for wafers and other round samples

We have designed the tabletop ST3271 to optimize sample preparation and surface analysis of wafers. The plate has a slot for positioning, which is compatible with the standard sizes of wafer tips. To facilitate centering the samples, the table surface can be easily adapted to the different standard sizes of wafers as well as other round samples by means of flexibly deployable pins.

The ST3271 wafer tabletop can be placed directly on top of a manual rotation axis PS3271, or on a software-controlled rotation axis PS3270 in order to carry out automated sample analyses.The ideal way to use the wafer table setup lies in combining it with a vacuum table ST3210. The vacuum of this accessory is effective through holes in the wafer tabletop in order to hold the samples firmly in position.

ST10 – Set for measuring contact angle in bulk liquid

We have developed the sample holder and dosing set ST10 for measuring contact angle in a bulk liquid phase. Gas bubbles (Captive Bubble) or drops are dosed beneath the sample with the help of the set’s special needle and cuvette, e.g. for analyzing hydrogels and highly energetic and structured surfaces. The special holders optimize measurements on contact lenses, films and textiles as well as on rigid samples.

ST01 – Suction plate for soft, flexible samples (foils, films)

The suction plate ST01 ensures that a smooth, flat surface is achieved with foils, films and similar samples. This guarantees a reliable and precise measurement of the contact angle on such soft, flexible materials. The wide area of 100 × 100 mm creates space for a large number of dosed drops. A vacuum pump, which is required for operating the plate, can be obtained from us.

ST03 – Powder sample holder for optical contact angle measurements

The powder sample holder ST03 is a sample table adapter with three depressions for measuring the contact angle on powder beds. The depressions are filled with powder which is then smoothed out resulting in flat surfaces for dosing liquids. The three separate areas enable at least three positions to be analyzed without being affected by adjacent drops, even in the case of absorbent powders. Please also refer to the alternative Washburn-Method for powder contact angle with our Force Tensiometer – K100.

ST04 – Sample holder for foils and paper

We have designed the special sample holder ST04 for measuring contact angle on foils and paper. The clamping device ensures an ideally smooth, flat surface, even with corrugated and rolled samples. The holder takes samples with a surface area of 80 × 80 mm and a thickness of up to 4 mm.

ST08 – Holder for uneven samples

When measuring the contact angle on uneven samples, dosing must be carried out on a raised point in order to obtain an analyzable shadow image of the drop. For this purpose, the sample table adapter ST08 has a domed shape, over which the samples are tightened with the help of a magnetic clamping device. Combining with horizontal axes enables several measurements to be made in quick succession by dosing accurately along the crest.

ST09 – Holder for round samples

The special sample holder ST09 simplifies the contact angle measurement for round samples such as glasses or tubes. The holder can be flexibly matched to the shape of your sample with the help of variably adjustable, sliding pins. Mounting on horizontal axes enables you to move the peak of the sample to the required dosing position accurately and conveniently.

 

Dosing units, syringes, needles, cuvettes

We provide reliable dosing solutions for static or dynamic contact angle, interfacial tension measurements and many other special cases. Our dosing accessories equip your instrument for all tasks relating to the production and placing of drops.
 

 

DS3205 – Manual dosing unit for one liquid

With the dosing unit DS3205, drops of a single liquid can be manually dosed in a simple way. The slowly advancing forward feed with a micrometer screw ensures that dosing is carried out gently and the shape of the drop is not mechanically affected. The high-quality glass syringe SY20 is suitable for almost all substances and also enables low-viscosity liquids to be dosed in a controlled manner. Tubeless direct dosing and the option of using disposable syringes make the dosing unit suitable for hazardous substances and contaminating liquids.

In addition to the dosing unit, the following components are included in the scope of supply:

  • 500 µL glass syringe SY20 with Luer-Lock connector for fitting the needle
  • 10 disposable syringes (1 mL) with Luer-Lock connector
  • 6 Sets of 5 needles each with different combinations of material and diameter for measuring contact angle or surface tension. The needles are made of steel, PP or PTFE for differently wetting liquids.

DS3210 – Software-controlled dosing unit for one liquid

The software-controlled dosing unit DS3210 produces drops with accurately reproducible volume for measuring contact angle and surface tension. The uniform dosing feed can be set to a very slow speed in order to accurately measure the advancing angle and the receding angle. Tubeless direct dosing and the option of using disposable syringes make the dosing unit suitable for hazardous substances and contaminating liquids.

In addition to the dosing unit, the following components are included in the scope of supply:

  • 500 µL glass syringe SY20 with Luer-Lock connector for fitting the needle
  • 10 disposable syringes (1 mL) with Luer-Lock connector
  • 6 Sets of 5 needles each with different combinations of material and diameter for measuring contact angle or surface tension. The needles are made of steel, PP or PTFE for differently wetting liquids.

DS3222-DS3228 – Software-controlled multi-dosing units

Our multi-dosing units DS3222 to DS3228 equip the DSA100 for the fully automatic dosing of 2 to 8 liquids. The motorized lift automatically actuates the dosing height or places the drop carefully on the sample. The software organizes even highly complex dosing and measuring sequences and, when combined with motorized axes, enables solids to be analyzed fully automatically. For example, the surface free energy of a solid can be determined based on contact angles with several liquids in a single measuring sequence.

The uniform dosing feed has a large dynamic range (10 to 1400 µL/min with a volume resolution of 0.1 µL). It can be set to a very slow speed in order to accurately measure the advancing angle and the receding angle. On the other hand, service functions, such as filling a syringe, are carried out very quickly.

An additional manual syringe can be used for other substances, for example for measuring surface tension or analyzing contaminating liquids.

In addition to the dosing unit, the following components are also included in the scope of supply:

  • The required number of precision glass syringes SY22
  • Storage containers for the appropriate number of liquids
  • Additional manual single-dosing for disposable syringes
  • 10 disposable syringes (3 mL) with Luer-Lock connector
  • 6 Sets of 5 needles each with different combinations of material and diameter for measuring contact angle or surface tension. The needles are made of steel, PP or PTFE for differently wetting liquids.

DS3252 – Double-dosing unit for extremely fast, fully automatic SFE measurements

Our DS3252 double-dosing module performs fully automated surface free energy (SFE) determinations, using an automation program in our ADVANCE software. The dosing unit has two pressure dosing mechanisms working in parallel, each simultaneously dispensing one drop of the test liquids water and diiodomethane onto the sample.

For carrying out the drop shape analysis, the image field of the high resolution camera is split into two video windows for viewing both drops at the same time in order to analyze the drops in parallel. The software then uses the resulting contact angles to calculate the SFE of the solid. The entire process, from the point when dosing starts up to the SFE calculation, is fully automatic and complete within a second. For this innovative measuring method, we hold a patent regarding the novel dosing technology.

The kinetic energy of the dosing process – despite its speed – is equivalent to gently dispensing a drop from a dosing needle. Most importantly, this noncontact method eliminates the risk of contamination or damage caused by inadvertently touching the sample. Cartridges, that operators can remove quickly and fill directly with test liquids, make the dosing system easy to handle. One filling is enough for approximately 1000 SFE determinations.

The dosing unit DS3252 requires our CF03 USB camera.

In addition to the dosing unit, the following components are also included in the scope of supply:

  • 10 cartridges with Luer-Lock connector: 5 transparent for water and 5 brown for diiodomethane
  • 10 disposable syringes (1 mL) with Luer connector
  • 10 Luer-Lock adapters
  • 1 transparent and 1 brown 25 mL glass bottle for test liquids
  • Tool for easy removal of cartridges from the dosing unit
  • Cleaning set for the dosing valves

The first three positions on this list are also available as spare part set SP52.

SY20 – 500 µL glass syringe with Luer-Lock connector

The precision glass syringe SY20 is used for our manual dosing unit DS3205 or software-controlled dosing units D03211/DO4011 for one liquid. The gas-tightness of the syringe plunger and the Luer-Lock connector ensure that drops are dosed in a controlled manner even with low-viscosity liquids.

SY22 – 500 µL glass syringe with screw thread

With our software-controlled multi-dosing units, the SY22 syringe is responsible for the controlled production of the required drop volume. To this end, the gas-tight syringe plunger is motor driven to force the liquid out of the syringe into the dosing tube. The SY22 is easily fitted to the dosing unit by means of a thread.

SY3601 – Disposable 1 mL syringe with Luer connector (100 pieces)

The syringe SY3601 can be fitted to many of our manual and software-controlled dosing solutions and can be used for almost all liquids. It is particularly suitable for dosing highly contaminating substances such as adhesives or paints. The Luer connector ensures safe, gas-tight connections to needles and other dosing components. The syringe is supplied in sets of 100.

NE93/NE96 – Needle sets for surface and interfacial tension

The choice of a suitable needle diameter maximizes the accuracy of surface and interfacial tension measurements using the Pendant Drop method.
For this purpose, the needle set NE96 (top picture) contains stainless steel needles with a length of 38 mm and different outside diameters (0.5/1.0/2.0/3.0 mm), in order to achieve an ideal drop shape for analysis in every measuring range.In the set NE93 (bottom picture), the four different needles are also PTFE-coated and optimize the analysis of liquids with good wetting properties. The coating prevents external wetting of the needle and ensures absolutely symmetrical drop shapes.

NE94 – Set of disposable needles for contact angle and pendant drop

The needle assortment NE94 provides a range of suitable needles for measuring contact angle as well as surface and interfacial tension (SFT/IFT) using the Pendant Drop method. Steel, PP and PTFE needles with a length of 38 mm and different diameters enable optimal dosing for solids and liquids with different wetting behavior. All needles have a Luer-Lock connector for secure attachment to all single and multi-dosing units.


Contents of the set:

  • 5 steel needles with 1.8 mm diameter (SFT/IFT)
  • 5 steel needles with 0.5 mm diameter (contact angle)
  • 5 PTFE needles with 2.0 mm diameter (SFT/IFT)
  • 5 PTFE needles with 1.0 mm diameter (SFT/IFT)
  • 5 PTFE needles with 0.5 mm diameter (contact angle)
  • 5 PP needles (flexible syringe) with 0.7 mm diameter (contact angle)

NE97 – Needle set for measurements on rising air bubbles or drops

The set NE97 with three J-shaped needles has been put together especially for measurements with the Captive Bubble method and with rising drops. The 0.5 mm diameter needle enables highly energetic, structured or pre-wetted surfaces (e.g. contact lenses) to be analyzed. With two further needles (1.0 and 2.0 mm), the interfacial tension can be measured on rising drops. This enables systems such as crude oil/water, in which the lighter phase is not transparent, to be analyzed optically.

NE50 – Needle for dosing small volumes

The needle NE50 with 5 µm internal diameter has been designed for the manual dosing of small volumes below the microliter range. The water-repellent surface lets drops detach easily from the needle and allows to place them accurately in the required position on your sample. Please also see our accessories for dosing drops in the picoliter range and the analysis of minute probes using microscope lenses.

SC01/SC02 – Glass cuvettes for pendant drop and contact angle measurement in liquid

The glass cuvettes SC01 and SC02 accommodate the bulk phase when measuring the interfacial tension using the Pendant Drop method. When measuring surface tension, the cuvettes screen the dosed drop against air currents. With the smaller cuvette SC01 (top picture), this is also ensured by an additional cover which additionally prevents the drop evaporating. The smaller cuvette SC01 can be used when taking measurements in a temperature controlled chamber for measuring interfacial temperature as a function of temperature.

Because of its larger design, the SC02 (bottom picture) is particularly suitable for measuring the contact angle in the bulk liquid. Both cuvettes are made of high-quality optical glass. As a result, drops are displayed without distortion, thus guaranteeing an accurate analysis of the drop shape.


Overview of both products:

  • SC01: Cuvette with inner dimensions 20 × 20 × 24 mm (W × D × H), with cover, can be used in temperature controlled chambers
  • SC02: Cuvette with inner dimensions 36 × 36 × 30 mm, particularly suitable for measuring the contact angle in the bulk liquid.

 

Calibration standards

With our calibration standards you can check the accuracy of the drop shape analysis carried out by your instrument and validate the optical measuring equipment. The standards consist of glass slides with modeled drop shapes which have been accurately calculated and printed with high precision.

 

CP70/CP70C – Standard with shapes of sessile and pendant drops for the Young-Laplace method

The drop shape standard CP70/CP70C contains an arrangement of shapes printed on one slide which accurately follow the theoretical drop shape according to Young-Laplace. Having all required drop shapes on one standard makes the calibration procedure especially easy and also allows carrying out automated calibrations.

The standard is used to calibrate the Young-Laplace method for measuring the contact angle and the surface tension. Shapes with contact angles of 30°, 60° and 120°, each for standard and microscope optics deviate by less than 0.1° from the nominal value. Equally precise are two shapes of pendant drops with nominal surface tension values of 30 mN/m and 70 mN/m with a maximum deviation of 0.01 mN/m. To support you in accurately aligning the slide to the camera, cross-wires are printed onto it on both sides.

The CP70C type of the standard additionally includes a certificate which confirms the high accuracy of the print.

CP21/CP22 – Sets of contact angle standards for the height-width method

The sets CP21 and CP22 each contain standards with shapes of exactly circular drops for calibrating the height-width methodand the circle method for measuring the contact angle. The shapes with contact angles of 30°, 60° and 120° deviate by less than 0.1° from the nominal value. The set CP22 additionally includes a certificate which confirms the high accuracy of the print.

CP29/CP33 – Standards for small contact angles with the circle method

The standards CP29 and CP33 are designed for calibrating the circle method for measuring contact angles in the lower range of this method. The printed shape with a contact angle of 10° is exactly circular. The deviation from the nominal value is less than 0.1°. The standard CP33 is supplied with an additional certificate which confirms the high accuracy of the print.

 

Optical components

Special optical modules equip your measuring instrument for various challenging tasks, such as precise wetting analyses in the high-speed range.
 

 

CF03 – High speed and resolution USB 3.0 camera

The CF03 camera enables high-resolution images with 1200 × 800 pixels to be transmitted at high speed via the USB 3.0 port. Transmission rates of up to 200 frames per second (fps) at full resolution and up to 2000 fps with reduced image size enable contact angles to be measured precisely, even with rapidly evaporating liquids and absorbent samples.
The camera’s exceptionally responsive sensor is capable of detecting just a few photons, thus avoiding the need for special lighting even at high speeds.

The CF03 has been the standard camera for all our Drop Shape Analyzers since July 2015. Customers with instruments purchased after 1st January 2013 can also benefit from the camera’s enhanced performance by means of an upgrade.

CF3217 – High-speed camera for IEEE-1394 interface

The high-speed camera CF3217 is especially suitable for investigating the initial wetting by falling drops or contact angle measurements on very fast absorbing samples. With high-resolution images at up to 1000 frames/second, the camera outputs the necessary frame rate for accurately analyzing wetting processes in the millisecond range.

IL10 – Additional cold light source

In some cases, such as non-reflecting or uneven samples, the image of the drop does not stand out sufficiently from the background. In order to improve the analysis in such cases, the sample can be additionally illuminated with the help of the cold light source IL10. The flexible swan neck for the lamp and the fine regulation of the luminous intensity enable the direction, angle of incidence and brightness to be adjusted to exactly suit the particular situation.

 

Tools, aids and spare parts

To assist you when working with your instrument, we offer a diverse range of helpful accessories for preparing and carrying out your measurements and for cleaning after taking the measurement.

 

VP01 – Vacuum pump

The vacuum pump VP01 is a useful aid which can be used with many of our measuring instruments for the following purposes: 

  • Degassing of liquids for picoliter dosing units or for interfacial rheology to prevent the formation of troublesome air bubbles (with additional connector set SP01)
  • Removal of dosed drops when measuring contact angle to enable several positions along the optical axis to be analyzed (with additional connector set SP01)
  • Flushing the tiny dosing opening of picoliter dosing units (with additional connector set SP01)
  • Producing the vacuum for fixing foils and films for the suction table ST01
  • Use of the vacuum for the filter base cleaning tool TO4501 for the Dynamic Foam Analyzer – DFA100

SP01 – Vacuum pump connector set

You can use the connector set SP01 in conjunction with the vacuum pump VP01 which we supply:

  • Degassing liquids. The interfacial rheology module and our micro dosing units work even more reliably if no air bubbles can form during the measurement.
  • Drying and cleaning micro dosing units. The dosing unit’s tiny opening can easily be dried or flushed with the help of a vacuum pump.
  • Removing dosed drops when measuring contact angle. Removing analyzed drops enables further drops to be dosed in the camera viewing direction without superimposed drop images interfering with the evaluation.

SP02 – Cleaning set for picoliter dosing units

The operation of the picoliter dosing unit can be affected by particles of dirt on the piezo tip or in the dosing channel. The set SP02 contains 10 micro filters and 20 tips which you can use to keep the dosing liquid reliably free from particles. The lint-free absorbent cotton buds and cloths included in the set ensure that the dosing tip is properly cleaned from the outside. One unit of SP02 is supplied with your picoliter dosing unit.

SP3201/SP3202 – Storage bottles for multi dosing units

We have prepared the two sets SP3201 and SP3202 with 25 mL storage bottles especially for use in your multi dosing unit. As well as a gas-tight screw cap, a cap with an opening and a silicone seal with a hole for the dosing tube are also included. The bottles have a magnetic bottom which attaches to the base plate of the measuring instrument.

  • SP3201: Set with one transparent glass bottle
  • SP3202: Set with one brown glass bottle for protecting light-sensitive liquids, especially diiodomethane

SP3203/SP3204 – Sets with replacement tubes and fittings for multi dosing units

The two sets with tubes for multi dosing units each contain two suitably tailored tubes made of chemically resistant PTFE in each of three colors. We have already fitted the tubes for the dosing needle with needle heads, which are simply clicked into the rotating carrier of the dosing unit. Two fittings for liquid-tight connection to the dosing valves are supplied for each tube color. The different tube colors enable the dosing lines to be quickly associated with the syringes and appropriate test liquids.

  • Set SP3203 (top photo): Two-each tubes in white, blue and gray
  • Set SP3204 (bottom photo): Two-each tubes in yellow, green and black

SP52 – Spare cartridges and syringes for pressurized double-dosing units

The set SP52 contains disposable parts for the dosing unit of our Mobile Surface Analyzer – MSA as well as the double-dosing unit DS3252 for our Drop Shape Analyzers:

  • 5 transparent cartridges with Luer-Lock connector for water
  • 5 brown cartridges with Luer-Lock connector for diiodomethane
  • 10 disposable syringes (1 mL) with Luer connector
  • 10 Luer-Lock adapters

PA3250 – Set for electrowetting applications

The modification of wetting properties in an electric field (electrowetting) is used for innovative technologies such as liquid lenses and special displays. The set PA3250 makes it possible to measure the contact angle with a voltage applied. This is achieved by voltage limiters (250 V) for DC and AC, insulators for the sample table and dosing unit, and connecting cables with crocodile clips. This makes it easy for you to use your intended voltage source for electrowetting analyses.

DO43 – Syringe plunger for high-temperature dosing units

The syringe plunger DO43 for high-temperature dosing units enables low-viscosity melts to be dosed at temperatures up to 250 °C. The plunger fits accurately into the melt cylinder and is fitted with a PTFE seal which prevents the melt from running out.

DO44 – Melt cylinder for high-temperature dosing units

The melt cylinder DO44 is made of robust brass with good heat-conducting properties and is therefore ideal for heating and dosing with our high-temperature dosing units. The inside diameter is designed to exactly match the associated stainless steel dosing plunger.

TO41 – Cleaning tool for high-temperature dosing units

The cleaning set TO41 enables you to quickly and easily remove melt residues from the components of your high-temperature dosing unit. The set comprises three specially shaped, robust tools for all areas that need cleaning:

  • Reamers for the cylinder walls
  • Conically tapered drill bit (countersink) for the transition between cylinder and needle
  • Special CrNi steel wire for cleaning the cannula